Configuration Considerations

group page_ble_section_configuration_considerations

This section explains how to configure the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) middleware for operation in either:

  1. Complete BLE Protocol Single and Dual CPU modes

  2. Controller-only mode (HCI over Software API)

The following figure shows the common flow for PSoC 6 BLE Middleware configuration: ../../../../_images/ble_config_common_flow.png

Refer to the following sections for BLE configuration details:

  • Generate Configuration in the BT Configurator

  • BLE Stack Components and CM0+ Pre-built Images

    • BLE Stack Libraries

    • CM0+ BLESS Controller Pre-compiled Image

  • Configure BLESS Interrupt

  • Initialize and Enable PSoC 6 BLE Middleware in Complete BLE Protocol Mode

    • Complete BLE Protocol Single CPU mode

    • Complete BLE Protocol Dual CPU Mode

  • Initialize and Enable PSoC 6 BLE Middleware in Controller-only Mode (HCI over Software API)

  • Over-The-Air Bootloading with Code Sharing

Generate Configuration in the BT Configurator

  1. Run the stand-alone BT Configurator to configure the BLE design.

  2. After configuring the BLE General, GAP, GATT, and Link layer settings, save the generated source and header files.

  3. Add these files to your application.

The generated files contain the BLE configuration structure, cy_ble_config (type of cy_stc_ble_config_t ), and a set of macros that can be used in the application. Refer to ModusToolbox BT Configurator Tool Guide.

BLE Stack Components and CM0+ Pre-built Images

The BLE stack components and the pre-compiled image for the CM0+ BLE Sub-system (BLESS) controller are parts of the PSoC 6 BLE Middleware that include different variants of pre-built BLE stack libraries.

The user may specify the BLE stack components and CM0+ pre-built image via the COMPONENTS variable in the application level Makefile. The following table describes all the BLE stack components, pre-built images, and the relationship between them in different BLE operating modes:

Components (libraries / pre-built images)

Description

BLE Operation Modes

Complete BLE Protocol

BLE HCI (over Software API)

BLE Dual CPU Mode (Host part)

BLE Single CPU Mode

BLESS_HOST_IPC

BLE stack host (over IPC) pre-built libraries that run on the CM4 core in BLE Dual CPU mode. Must be complemented with the CM0+ BLESS controller pre-compiled image (CM0P_BLESS). There are soft FP and hard FP variants.

Y

BLESS_HOST

BLE stack host (over software transport interface) pre-built libraries that run on the CM4 core in BLE Single CPU mode. Must be complemented with the BLE Stack controller (over software transport interface) component (BLESS CONTROLLER). There are soft FP and hard FP variants.

Y

BLESS_CONTROLLER

BLE stack controller (over software transport interface) pre-built libraries that run on the CM4 core in BLE Single CPU or Host Controller Interface (HCI) modes. There are soft FP and hard FP variants.

Y

Y

CM0P_BLESS

This image has the BLE controller implementation. It starts the CM4 core at CY_CORTEX_M4_APPL_ADDR=0x10020000. It then goes into a while loop where it processes BLE controller events and puts the CM0+ core into CPU deep sleep.

Y

CM0P_SLEEP

This image starts the CM4 core at CY_CORTEX_M4_APPL_ADDR=0x10002000 and puts the CM0+ core into CPU deep sleep.

(Y)

(Y)

Other CM0+ images

Pre-compiled application images executed on the Cortex M0+ core of the PSoC 6 Dual-core MCU. The images are provided as C arrays ready to be compiled as part of the Cortex M4 application. The Cortex M0+ application code is placed in internal flash by the Cortex M4 linker script.

(Y)

(Y)

The following fragments of the application level Makefile show how to enable different BLE modes.

Dual CPU mode

Single CPU mode

HCI mode

APPNAME=BLE_APP_DUAL_CORE
COMPONENTS=BLESS_HOST_IPC CM0_BLESS

APPNAME=BLE_APP_SINGLE_CORE
COMPONENTS=BLESS_HOST BLESS_CONTROLLER

APPNAME=BLE_HCI_APP
COMPONENTS=BLESS_CONTROLLER

note

CM0_BLESS - is a pre-built image with BLESS controller

BLE Stack Libraries

The BLE stack libraries are compliant with the Arm Embedded Application Binary Interface (EABI). They are compiled with the Arm compiler version 5.03. The following table shows the mapping between the BLE stack libraries and the user-configured COMPONENT:

COMPONENT Name

Library Name/Path in PSoC 6 BLE Middleware

Used for Toolchains (WCHAR)

SOFT/HARD Floating Point

BLESS_HOST_IPC

COMPONENT_BLESS_HOST_IPC/COMPONENT_SOFTFP/TOOLCHAIN_GCC_ARM/cy_ble_stack_host.a

GCC (WCHAR 32)

SOFTFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_HOST_IPC/COMPONENT_HARDFP/TOOLCHAIN_GCC_ARM/cy_ble_stack_host.a

HARDFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_HOST_IPC/COMPONENT_SOFTFP/TOOLCHAIN_IAR/cy_ble_stack_host.a

IAR (WCHAR 32)

SOFTFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_HOST_IPC/COMPONENT_HARDFP/TOOLCHAIN_IAR/cy_ble_stack_host.a

HARDFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_HOST_IPC/COMPONENT_SOFTFP/TOOLCHAIN_ARM/cy_ble_stack_host.ar

Arm Compiler 6 (WCHAR 16)

SOFTFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_HOST_IPC/COMPONENT_HARDFP/TOOLCHAIN_ARM/cy_ble_stack_host.ar

HARDFP

BLESS_HOST

COMPONENT_BLESS_HOST/COMPONENT_SOFTFP/TOOLCHAIN_GCC_ARM/cy_ble_stack_host.a

GCC (WCHAR 32)

SOFTFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_HOST/COMPONENT_HARDFP/TOOLCHAIN_GCC_ARM/ cy_ble_stack_host.a

HARDFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_HOST/COMPONENT_SOFTFP/TOOLCHAIN_IAR/ cy_ble_stack_host.a

IAR (WCHAR 32)

SOFTFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_HOST/COMPONENT_HARDFP/TOOLCHAIN_IAR/cy_ble_stack_host.a

HARDFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_HOST/COMPONENT_SOFTFP/TOOLCHAIN_ARM/cy_ble_stack_host.ar

Arm Compiler 6 (WCHAR 16)

SOFTFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_HOST/COMPONENT_HARDFP/TOOLCHAIN_ARM/cy_ble_stack_host.ar

HARDFP

BLESS_CONTROLLER

COMPONENT_BLESS_CONTROLLER/COMPONENT_SOFTFP/TOOLCHAIN_GCC_ARM/cy_ble_stack_controller.a

GCC (WCHAR 32)

SOFTFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_CONTROLLER/COMPONENT_SOFTFP/TOOLCHAIN_GCC_ARM/cy_ble_stack_manager.a

COMPONENT_BLESS_CONTROLLER/COMPONENT_HARDFP/TOOLCHAIN_GCC_ARM/cy_ble_stack_controller.a

HARDFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_CONTROLLER/COMPONENT_HARDFP/TOOLCHAIN_GCC_ARM/cy_ble_stack_manager.a

COMPONENT_BLESS_CONTROLLER/COMPONENT_SOFTFP/TOOLCHAIN_IAR/cy_ble_stack_controller.a

IAR (WCHAR 32)

SOFTFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_CONTROLLER/COMPONENT_SOFTFP/TOOLCHAIN_IAR/cy_ble_stack_manager.a

COMPONENT_BLESS_CONTROLLER/COMPONENT_HARDFP/TOOLCHAIN_IAR/cy_ble_stack_controller.a

HARDFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_CONTROLLER/COMPONENT_HARDFP/TOOLCHAIN_IAR/cy_ble_stack_manager.a

COMPONENT_BLESS_CONTROLLER/COMPONENT_SOFTFP/TOOLCHAIN_ARM/cy_ble_stack_controller.ar

Arm Compiler 6 (WCHAR 16)

SOFTFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_CONTROLLER/COMPONENT_SOFTFP/TOOLCHAIN_ARM/cy_ble_stack_manager.ar

COMPONENT_BLESS_CONTROLLER/COMPONENT_HARDFP/TOOLCHAIN_ARM/cy_ble_stack_controller.ar

HARDFP

COMPONENT_BLESS_CONTROLLER/COMPONENT_HARDFP/TOOLCHAIN_ARM/cy_ble_stack_manager.ar

CM0+ BLESS Controller Pre-compiled Image

Pre-compiled BLESS controller image executed on the Cortex M0+ core of the PSoC 6 dual- core MCU. The image is provided as C arrays ready to be compiled as part of the Cortex M4 application. The Cortex M0+ application code is placed in internal flash by the Cortex M4 linker script. This image is used only in BLE Dual CPU mode. In this mode, the BLE functionality is split between CM0+ (controller) and CM4 (host). It uses IPC for communication between two CPU cores where both the controller and host run.

A BLESS controller pre-built image executes the following steps:

  • configures a BLESS interrupt

  • registers an IPC-pipe callback for the PSoC 6 BLE Middleware to initialize and enable the BLE controller when the PSoC 6 BLE Middleware operates in BLE Dual CPU mode

  • starts the CM4 core at CY_CORTEX_M4_APPL_ADDR=0x10020000

  • goes into a while loop where it processes BLE controller events and puts the CM0+ core into CPU deep sleep.

To use this image, update the ram, flash, and FLASH_CM0P_SIZE values in the linker script for CM4:

Example for the GCC compiler:

...
MEMORY
{
    ...
    ram       (rwx)   : ORIGIN = 0x08003000, LENGTH = 0x044800
    flash     (rx)    : ORIGIN = 0x10000000, LENGTH = 0x100000
    ... 
}
...
/* The size and start addresses of the Cortex-M0+ application image */
FLASH_CM0P_SIZE  = 0x20000;
...

Example for the IAR compiler:

...
/* RAM */
define symbol __ICFEDIT_region_IRAM1_start__ = 0x08003000;
define symbol __ICFEDIT_region_IRAM1_end__   = 0x08047800;
/* Flash */
define symbol __ICFEDIT_region_IROM1_start__ = 0x10000000;
define symbol __ICFEDIT_region_IROM1_end__   = 0x10100000;
...
/* The size and start addresses of the Cortex-M0+ application image */
define symbol FLASH_CM0P_SIZE  = 0x20000;
...

Example for the IAR compiler:

...
; RAM
#define RAM_START               0x08003000
#define RAM_SIZE                0x00044800
; Flash
#define FLASH_START             0x10000000
#define FLASH_SIZE              0x00100000
...
/* The size and start addresses of the Cortex-M0+ application image */
#define FLASH_CM0P_SIZE         0x20000
...

Configure BLESS Interrupt

The interrupt is mandatory for PSoC 6 BLE Middleware operation. The BLESS hardware block provides interrupt sources. To configure interrupts, the Cy_BLE_BlessIsrHandler() function is called in the interrupt handler to process interrupt events generated by BLESS.

The BLESS interrupt is configured on the core where the BLE controller is running. The following table shows details of interrupt configuration depending on the BLE core modes.

BLE Core mode

BLE Controller core

BLESS Interrupt configuration

Dual CPU mode

CM0+

The BLESS interrupt is configured in the CM0+ BLESS controller pre-built image.

Single CPU mode

CM4

cy_stc_sysint_t blessIsrCfg =
{
// The BLESS interrupt
.intrSrc = bless_interrupt_IRQn,

// The interrupt priority number
.intrPriority = 1u
};
Note. Priority level (intrPriority ) must have the highest value in system.

The following code shows how to implement the ISR handler for the BLESS interrupt service. The Cy_BLE_BlessIsrHandler() function is called from BLESS ISR to process interrupt events generated by BLESS:

/*******************************************************************************
* Function Name: BlessInterrupt
****************************************************************************/
static void BlessInterrupt(void)
{
    /* Call interrupt processing */
    Cy_BLE_BlessIsrHandler();
}
Finally, the BLESS interrupt is configured and interrupt handler routines are hooked up to NVIC. The pointer to the BLESS interrupt configuration structure (blessIsrCfg) is stored in the BLE configuration structure ( cy_ble_config):
/* Assign BLESS interrupt number and priority */
const cy_stc_sysint_t blessIsrCfg =
{
     /* The BLESS interrupt */
     .intrSrc      = bless_interrupt_IRQn,

     /* The interrupt priority number */
     .intrPriority = 1u
};

/* Hook interrupt service routines for BLESS */
(void) Cy_SysInt_Init(&blessIsrCfg, &BlessInterrupt);

/* Store pointer to blessIsrCfg in BLE configuration structure */
cy_ble_config.hw->blessIsrConfig = &blessIsrCfg;

Initialize and Enable PSoC 6 BLE Middleware in Complete BLE Protocol Mode

Complete BLE Protocol Single CPU mode

In this mode, the BLE functionality is entirely on the CM4 CPU core. It uses a software interface for communication between the controller and host. The following figure shows the configuration flow for the BLE middleware in Single CPU mode.

../../../../_images/ble_config_single_mode.png

  1. Generate configuration in the BT Configurator, refer to ModusToolbox BT Configurator Tool Guide

  2. Specify the following BLE Stack Component and CM0+ Pre-built:

    • BLESS_HOST,

    • BLESS_CONTROLLER,

    • CM0P_SLEEP or other CM0+ image (e.g. CM0P_CRYPTO, etc).

      Refer to section

      BLE Stack Components and CM0+ Pre-built Images for detailed information.

  3. Initialize the BLESS interrupt as shown in section Configure BLESS Interrupt.

  4. Initialize and enable the PSoC 6 BLE Middleware in the application code:

    1. Call the Cy_BLE_RegisterEventCallback() function to register the generic callback function. The callback function is of type cy_ble_callback_t, as defined by: void (*cy_ble_callback_t)(uint32_t eventCode, void *eventParam).

    2. Call Cy_BLE_Init(&cy_ble_config), where cy_ble_config is the configuration structure exposed in cycfg_ble.c (generated by the BT Configurator).

    3. Call Cy_BLE_Enable() to enable the BLE host and controller.

    4. Optionally, to enable BLE low-power mode, call the Cy_BLE_EnableLowPowerMode() function.

    5. Register the service-specific callback functions to be used. For example, use Cy_BLE_IAS_RegisterAttrCallback( IasEventHandler) to register service-specific callback function IasEventHandler for the Immediate Alert service. This function is also of type cy_ble_callback_t and is passed as a parameter to the service-specific callback registration function. The callback function is used to evaluate service-specific events and to take the appropriate action as defined by your application. Then, build a service-specific state machine using these events.

Complete BLE Protocol Dual CPU Mode

In this mode, the BLE functionality is split between the CM0+ (controller) and CM4 (host) CPU cores. The controller part is implemented in BLESS controller CM0+ pre-built image. It uses IPC for communication between the two CPU cores that run the controller and host.The following figure shows the configuration flow for the PSoC 6 BLE Middleware in Dual CPU mode:

../../../../_images/ble_config_dual_mode.png

  1. Generate configuration in the BT Configurator, refer to ModusToolbox BT Configurator Tool Guide

  2. Specify the following BLE Stack Component and CM0+ Pre-built:

    • BLESS_HOST_IPC,

    • CM0P_BLESS.

      Refer to section

      BLE Stack Components and CM0+ Pre-built Images for detailed information.

  3. The BLESS interrupt is initialized in the CM0+ BLESS controller pre-built image, so you don’t need to do this.

  4. Initialize and enable the PSoC 6 BLE Middleware in the application code:

    1. Call the Cy_BLE_RegisterEventCallback() function to register the generic callback function. The callback function is of type cy_ble_callback_t, as defined by: void (*cy_ble_callback_t)(uint32_t eventCode, void *eventParam).

    2. Call Cy_BLE_Init(&cy_ble_config), where cy_ble_config is the configuration structure exposed in cycfg_ble.c (generated by the BT Configurator).

    3. Call Cy_BLE_Enable() to enable the BLE host and controller.

    4. Optionally, to enable BLE low-power mode, call the Cy_BLE_EnableLowPowerMode() function.

    5. Register the service-specific callback functions to be used. For example, use Cy_BLE_IAS_RegisterAttrCallback( IasEventHandler) to register service-specific callback function IasEventHandler for the Immediate Alert service. This function is also of type cy_ble_callback_t and is passed as a parameter to the service-specific callback registration function. The callback function is used to evaluate service-specific events and to take the appropriate action as defined by your application. Then, build a service-specific state machine using these events.

The following code snippet shows the BLE initialization:

void main(void)
{
    /* ... Initializes the BLE interrupt (skipped in this code snippet) ...*/
    
    /* Registers the generic callback functions  */
    Cy_BLE_RegisterEventCallback(AppCallBack);
    
    /* Initializes the BLE host */
    Cy_BLE_Init(&cy_ble_config);

    /* Enables BLE Low-power mode (LPM)*/
    Cy_BLE_EnableLowPowerMode();

    /* Enables BLE */
    Cy_BLE_Enable();

    /* Registers the service-specific callback functions (e.g. IAS) */
    Cy_BLE_IAS_RegisterAttrCallback(IasEventHandler);
 
    for (;;)
    {
        /* Cy_BLE_ProcessEvents() allows the BLE stack to process pending events */
        Cy_BLE_ProcessEvents();
 
        /* The main BLE application loop ... */      
    }
}

Initialize and Enable PSoC 6 BLE Middleware in Controller-only Mode (HCI over Software API)

../../../../_images/ble_config_controller_only_mode.png

  1. In the BT Configurator, select the option BLE Controller-only (HCI) in the General Tab and generate configuration., refer to ModusToolbox BT Configurator Tool Guide

  2. Specify the following BLE Stack Component and CM0+ Pre-built:

    • BLESS_CONTROLLER,

    • CM0P_SLEEP or other CM0+ image (e.g. CM0P_CRYPTO, etc).

      Refer to section

      BLE Stack Components and CM0+ Pre-built Images for detailed information.

  3. Initialize the BLESS interrupt as shown in section Configure BLESS Interrupt.

  4. Initialize and enable the PSoC 6 BLE Middleware in the application code:

    1. Call Cy_BLE_RegisterEventCallback(StackEventHandler) to register an event callback function to receive events from the BLE controller.

    2. Call Cy_BLE_Init(&cy_ble_config) where cy_ble_config is the configuration structure exposed in cycfg_ble.c (generated by the BLE Configurator).

    3. Call Cy_BLE_Enable() to enable the BLE controller.

Send an HCI packet to the BLE stack controller

Use the

Cy_BLE_SoftHciSendAppPkt() function to send an HCI packet to the BLE stack controller. The application allocates memory for the buffer to hold the HCI packet passed as an input parameter. This function copies the HCI packet into the controller’s HCI buffer. Hence, the application may deallocate the memory buffer created to hold the HCI packet, once the API returns.

Receive an HCI event (or ACL packet) from BLE stack controller

Use the

Cy_BLE_SoftHciSendAppPkt() function to send an HCI packet to the BLE stack controller. The application allocates memory for the buffer to hold the HCI packet passed as an input parameter. This function copies the HCI packet into the controller’s HCI buffer. Hence, the application may deallocate the memory buffer created to hold the HCI packet, once the API returns.

Over-The-Air Bootloading with Code Sharing

This feature is used in the over-the-air (OTA) implementation. It allows sharing BLE component code between two component instances: one instance with profile-specific code and one with a stack. To configure OTA with code sharing, define CY_BLE_SHARING_MODE in the project. This parameter allows choosing between the following options:

Option

Value

Description

Disabled

0

OTA with code sharing feature is disabled.

Stack and Profiles

1

This option is used to isolate the stack and the application Profiles.
Dynamically allocate memory for the BLE stack and pass the pointer to the memory heap into BLE config structure (cy_ble_config.stackParam->memoryHeapPtr). The PSoC 6 BLE Middleware provides macro CY_BLE_STACK_RAM_SIZE which defines the ram size.

The following code snippet shows how to dynamically allocate memory for BLE stack:
// Allocate memory for BLE stack
cy_ble_config.stackParam->memoryHeapPtr = (uint8 *)malloc(CY_BLE_STACK_RAM_SIZE);

if(cy_ble_config.stackParam->memoryHeapPtr == NULL)
{
Cy_SysLib_Halt(0x00u);
}
Note This mode requires approximately 3024 additional bytes of heap memory. If there is not enough heap memory, the PSoC 6 BLE Middleware will not work. The Heap size can be modified by editing linker scripts.

Profile only

2

This option makes the middleware only have the profile-specific code. Stack is excluded.